White is one of the most classic and most commonly used colors in the decoration design, such as the Abu Dhabi Mosque (Yugoslav White), the Banking Regulatory Office Building (Snow White, Oriental White), and the Huanglong Hotel (Fish White). This article introduces the distribution and formation process of white marble.
The distribution of white marble is very characteristic. The main varieties in the world are distributed in several large mining areas with a radius of less than 20 square kilometers. A large number of mines are distributed in the same mining area, and the materials produced are similar and different. There are also sporadic white marble mines in the world, but these mines are difficult to weather, and will soon disappear in the market because of their own quality problems or depletion of ore bodies. The main reason for the difference is the formation of these two white marbles. The mechanism is different.
There are three major mining areas in the world: Carrara in Italy, VOLAKAS in Greece, and Baoxing in China.
The Carrara region is the most famous and largest white marble mining area in the world. It mainly produces white, white, large, white, and fine white flowers. All mines are concentrated in a radius of about 15 square kilometers.
The VOLAKAS region in Greece mainly produces varieties such as Yashibai, Jazz White, and New Jazz White, and the mines are distributed within the range of 8KM*2KM. China's Baoxing area mainly produces oriental white, landscape painting, blue sky and white jade, blue sky and jasper, etc. The mines are distributed in the range of less than 10 square kilometers.
White marble is formed by recrystallization of ordinary calcium carbonate/magnesium, and white is the natural color of calcium carbonate/magnesium. The main forces driving recrystallization are two: one is high temperature and the other is high pressure.
Calcium carbonate/magnesium recrystallization with high temperature as the main power mainly occurs in two situations in geology, one is hydrothermal intrusion, and the other is temperature rise caused by geothermal gradient effect after deep burial. It is well known that calcium carbonate is directly decomposed into quicklime and carbon dioxide by heating directly to 900 ° C under normal pressure:
However, at ten times atmospheric pressure, it can be measured that the melting point of calcium carbonate is 1289 ° C, ten times atmospheric pressure is a geologically ultra-low pressure environment, which can be reached at 50 meters underground or 100 meters in sea water. After applying a certain pressure, the calcium carbonate is brought into a molten or semi-molten state, and recrystallization occurs.
Calcium carbonate/magnesium recrystallization with high pressure as the main power does not occur in the ordinary deep burial process, because the rock temperature will increase significantly when the geothermal gradient effect is buried. This situation mainly occurs in the orogenic movement, where the crust is partially stressed and the rock is rapidly deformed, and the calcium carbonate/magnesium protoliths also recrystallize and become white marble.
Metallogenic characteristics and ore-controlling factors
The world's major white marble mines are recrystallized with high pressure as the main power. The three main mining areas mentioned above are located in the mountains of the mountains. The Karala mining area is within a distance of 4 kilometers, and the altitude is raised from 100 meters to 900 meters. The Yashibai and Jazz white mines are within a distance of 12 kilometers. From 150 meters to 1,100 meters, and China's Baoxing white mining area is elevated from 1800 meters to 3300 meters within 2.8 kilometers! These are the results of orogenic movements in geological history.
Stones are required to have sufficient flexural strength. If the original rock is recrystallized only under high temperature, on the one hand, the crystallized particles may be relatively large, and the calcium carbonate/magnesium crystals are completely cleavable, and the boundaries between the particles. It is very obvious that both of these aspects will seriously reduce the flexural strength of white marble.
A few years ago, there was a white crystal mine in Shaanxi, China. The color was very white, but the flexural strength was poor. In the end, it could not be used as a stone mine. The recrystallization of high pressure as the main power, the general crystallization environment is dynamic instability, the formation of crystal particles is fine, and the boundary between crystals is distorted or ablated, and the formed white marble has good physical properties
Mines that are exposed to deterioration and are generally small in scale, similar to jade mines, have limited reserves and cannot form a world-famous mining area that can be mined for hundreds of years.
white marble generally has a very beautiful decorative pattern, this pattern is easier to form under high pressure. As the pressure increases, the impurities in the original will be aligned in parallel to form a beautiful pattern.
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